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Martini, Karl Anton von (* 1726.08.15 † 1800.08.08)
Martini, Karl Anton von (* 1726.08.15 † 1800.08.08)
CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Martini, Karl Anton von (* 1726.08.15 † 1800.08.08)

Basic Overview Data

Born
1726.08.15, Revò[in the Princely County of Tyrol]
Died
1800.08.08, Vienna
Confession
Catholic
Institutional Affiliation
University of Vienna,
Theresian Knight Academy (Vienna),
Savoy Knight Academy (Vienna)
Keyword Filters
Pufendorf, Christian Wolff, Catholic
VIAF:
Important Family Relations:
Father, Karl Ferdinand Ritter von Martini, notary, Court Councillor (“Hofrat”) of the Austrian Supreme Court (“Oberste Justizstelle”)
Mother, Margarethe Preti von Cagnò (1703.12.02 - 1764.05.17),
Brother, Pietro Giuseppe Antonio, lawyer and professor at the Theresian Knight Academy (“Theresianische Ritterakademie”) in Vienna
Uncle (on his mother’s side), Antonio de Pretis (1714 - 1768), doctor utriusque iuris, ennobled by Emperor Joseph II on September 18, 1768
Uncle (on his father’s side), don Giovanni Antonio Martini (1702 - 1769), priest, doctor of theology, country dean (“Landdekan”), prosynodal auditor and pastor in Mezzolombardo
Wife, Theresia von Eger (1733 - 1798.07.26), (daughter of Johann Friedrich Edler von Eger)
Father in law, Johann Friedrich Edler von Eger (? - 1771), secretary of the Bohemian and Austrian Court Chancellery (“böhmisch-österreichische Hofkanzlei”), Government Councillor (“Regierungsrat”)
Canonical URL:

Biography:

Under Review!

Comment on main natural law works:

Under Review!

Comment on profile’s conception of natural law:

Under Review!

Academic Data

Studies

../1739, First basic education at home and at elementary school
1739 - 1741, Philosophy, Trento Jesuit School
1741 - 1743, Philosophy, University of Innsbruck
1741 - 1743, Theology (not completed), law and political science, University of Innsbruck[Peter Anton Inama, Johann Georg Muschgay, Karl Puchler, Paul Joseph Riegger]
1747 - 1750, Law and political science, University of Vienna

Degrees

1753, Doctor juris, University of Vienna

Travels

1752.02.07 - 1752.03, Bohemia (Prague - ), Holy Roman Empire (Nuremberg - , Wertheim - , Cologne - ), Austrian Netherlands (Brussels 1752.03.04 - )
1752.04 - 1753.06, Spain (Madrid - , Valencia - , Barcelona - ), France (Marseille - ), Italy (Turin - )
1753 - 1754.02.09, Italy (Florence - , Padua - , Venice - ), Austria (Graz - , Vienna - )

Teaching

1754.05–1782.11.19: Institutions, natural law and history of roman law, University of Vienna, Faculty of Law (From October 1774 onwards, Franz von Zeiller was hired as Martini's substitute to give his lectures)
1753–1773: Natural law and roman institutions, Theresian Knight Academy (“Theresianische Ritterakademie”)
1765–1774: Constitutional law, the law of nations, Savoy Knight Academy (“Savoyische Ritterakademie”)

Professional Data

Career

1750 - 1752, Secretary of Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Haugwitz; also tutor of Graf Johann Sigismund Friedrich von Khevenhüller
1752 - 1754, Secretary of Graf Johann Sigismund Friedrich von Khevenhüller
1754.04.22 - 1782.11.19, Ordinary professor of natural law, institutions and history of roman law, University of Vienna, Faculty of Law
1753 - 1773, Teacher of natural law and roman institutions, Theresian Knight Academy
1761.08 - 1773, Law teacher to the children of Maria Theresia, namely the Archdukes Joseph, Leopold, Ferdinand, Maximilian and the Archduchess Marie Caroline
1765 - 1774, Teacher of constitutional law and the law of nations, Savoy Knight Academy
1785 - 1786, Reformer in Milan
1786.11.28 - 1787.06, Reformer in Brussels

Titles, Memberships and Other Relevant Roles

1758.09.11, Member, the Court Commission for Censorship (“Hofkommission in Zensursachen”), Vienna
1759, Chairman, the “Hofkommission in Zensursachen”, Vienna
1760, Member, the Court Commission on Education (“Studienhofkommission”), Vienna
1762, Chairman, the “Studienhofkommission”, Vienna
1764.03.15 - 1774, Court Councillor (“Hofrat”), the Austrian Supreme Court (“Oberste Justizstelle”), Vienna
1765.06.25, Imperial knighthood (“Reichsritterstand”) with the title „Ritter zu Wasserberg“
1773.04.04 - 1776.08, Member, the Compilation Court Commission, Vienna (there Martini was involved in the preliminary work on the codification of Austrian civil law)
1773.12.31, Member, the Order of St. Stephen (“St. Stefansorden”)
1774 - 1779, “Hofrat”, the Bohemian and Austrian Court Chancellery (“böhmisch-österreichische Hofkanzlei”), Vienna
1779 - 1782, “Hofrat”, the “Oberste Justizstelle”, Vienna
1780.12.01, Baronial stand (“Freiherr zu Wasserburg“) and at the same time award „coat of arms improvement“ (“Wappenbesserung”) by Maria Theresia
1781, Senior Director („Oberdirektor“) of Fürst Josef I. Adam von Schwarzenberg
1782.05.27 - 1788, State Councillor in domestic affairs (“Staatsrat in inländischen Geschäften”)
1783, Entry in the Tyrolean nobility register
1785.08.05 - 1788, Secret State Councillor (“Geheimer Staatsrat”)
1788.02.24, Vice President, the “Oberste Justizstelle”, Vienna
1790 - 1796, Chairman, the Court Commission in legislative affairs (“Hofkommission in Gesetzessachen”), Vienna
1796 - 1797.01.12, Member, the Court Commission in legislative affairs (“Hofkommission in Gesetzgebungssachen”), Vienna
1791 - 1795, Leader, the Commission for the reform of academia (“Studieneinrichtungskommission”), Vienna
1792.04.16 - 1800.08.08, Second president, the “Oberste Justizstelle”, Vienna
1797.10.10, President in judicial matters, the „bömisch-österreichische Hofkanzlei“, Vienna

Printed Sources

Books:

This bibliography is largely taken from Hebeis, Michael: Karl Anton von Martini (1716–1800). Leben und Werk (Rechtshistorische Reihe 153), (Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang, 1996) and also to a lesser extent from Cassi, Aldo Andrea: Il "bravo funzionario" absburgico tra Absolutismus e Aufklärung: il pensiero e l'opera di Karl Anton von Martini (1726 - 1800) (Milan: Giuffrè, 1999).

Ordo historiae juris civilis praelectionibus institutionum praemissus atque in usum auditorii vulgatus, (Vienna: Trattner, 1755)
     - Edition 1757 (Vienna and Prague: Trattner): Digital Version
     - Edition 1770 (Vienna: Trattner): Digital Version
     - Edition 1779 (Vienna: Trattner): Digital Version
          - German Translation 1794 (Vienna: Kaiserer) (maybe by Egger)
     - Edition 1782 (Coblenz: Huber)
     - Edition 1788 (Valencia: De Orga)
     - Edition 1788 (Brussels: Lemaire)
     - Edition 1803 (Pavia: Galeatii) (Amended and enlarged)
     - Edition 1807 (Coimbra: Academicis)
     - Edition 1817 (Coimbra: Academicis)
     - Edition 1826 (Coimbra: Academicis)
     - Edition 1844 (Coimbra: Academicis)
     - Edition 1853 (Coimbra: Academicis)

Meditation impartiale sur la conformité des loix naturelles avec l’art. IV. du traité conclu entre les deux cours impériales à St. Petersbourg 1746, ([S.l., Vienna], 1757): Digital Version

Exercitatio academica ad paragraphum primum institutionum de obligationibus, quae quasi ex contractu, (Vienna: Trattner, 1757) [Praeses: Karl Anton Martini JC., Respondent: Josephus Eberl]: Digital Version
     - Edition 1767 (Vienna: Trattner)

Exercitatio I. De natura statuque hominum morali, (([S.l., Vienna]:Kaliwoda, about 1759)

De natura statuque hominum morali, nec non de obligatione, lege, et jure generatim et singilatim naturali, exercitationes duae, (Vienna: Kaliwoda, 1760), [Praeses: Karl Anton von Martini, Respondent: Leonhard von Auersperg): Digital Version

Exercitationes Tres I. De natura statuque hominum morali II. De obligatione, lege, et jure generatim et singillatim naturali III. De legum naturalium principiis et proprietatibus, (Vienna: Kaliwoda, [../1765])

De lege naturali exercitationes sex, (Vienna: Kaliwoda, about 1766)
     - Edition 1770 (Vienna: Schulzianis): Digital Version
     - Edition 1776 (Vienna: Kurzböck): Digital Version (Expanded edition)
     - Edition 1776 (Cluj-Napoca: Kollmann)
     - Edition 1780 (Vienna: Kurzböck): Digital Version (Expanded edition)
          - German Translation [Franz Sonnleithner] 1783 (Vienna: Sonnleithner): Digital Version
     - Edition 1781 (Coblenz: Huber): Digital Version
     - Edition 1794 (Coimbra: Academicis)
     - Edition 1800 (Buda: Universitatis)

De lege naturali positiones in usum auditorii vindobonensis, (Vienna: Kaliwoda, 1762)
     - Edition 1764 (Vienna: Kaliwoda): Digital Version
     - Edition 1767 (Vienna: Kaliwoda)
          - German translation [Karl von Zalheim] 1771 (Vienna: Kurzböck): Digital Version [the translation remained unfinished; only the first volume was published]
          - German translation [Franz Sonnleithner]
               - Vol 1 (Vienna: Sonnleithner, 1783): Digital Version
               - Vol 2 (Vienna: Sonnleithner, 1784): Digital Version
          - German translation [probably Anton Hiltenbrand] 1787 (Vienna: Hörling): Digital Version
          - Hungarian translation [from German, Sámuel Diénes] 1792 (Bétsben: Diénes)
          - German translation [Mertens] 1797 (Vienna: Blumauer)
               - Edition 1799 (Vienna: Mößle)
               - Reprint of the edition 1799 (Aalen: Scientia, 1970)
     - Edition 1772 (Vienna: Kurzböck): Digital Version
     - Edition 1772 (Lisbon: De Sousa)
     - Edition 1777 (Cluj-Napoca: Kollmann)
     - Edition 1778 (Vienna: Trattner): Digital Version
     - Edition 1778 (Vienna: Kurzböck): Digital Version
     - Edition 1780 (Coblenz: Huber): Digital Version
     - Edition 1782 (Vienna: Trattner): Digital Version
     - Edition 1789 (Brussels, Lemaire)
     - Edition 1795 (Buda: Universitatis)
     - Edition 1802 (Coimbra: Academicis)
     - Edition 1825 (Coimbra: Academco-Regia)
     - Edition 1830 (Pernambuco: Nationalibus)
     - Edition 1840 (Coimbra: Academicis)

Positiones de jure civitatis in usum auditorii vindobonensis, (Vienna: Trattner, 1768): Digital Version
     - Edition 1772 (Lisbon: De Sousa)
     - Edition 1773 (Vienna: Trattner): Digital Version
     - Edition 1773 (Vienna: Kurzböck): Digital Version
     - Edition 1775 (Vienna: Kurzböck)
     - Edition 1779 (Vienna: Trattner): Digital Version
     - Edition 1780 (Vienna: Kurzböck): Digital Version
          - German translation [Franz Sonnleithner]:
               - Vol 3 (Vienna: Sonnleithner, 1783): Digital Version
               - Vol 4 (Vienna: Sonnleithner, 1784): Digital Version
          - Reprint of Vol 1–4 edition Vienna of Sonnleithner 1783–1784 (Aalen: Scientia, 1969)
          - German translation [probably Anton Hiltenbrand] 1788 (Vienna: Hörling): Digital Version
          - German translation [Mertens], 1797, (Vienna: Blumauer)
               - Edition 1799, (Vienna: Mößle): Digital Version
     - Edition 1781 (Coblenz: Huber): Digital Version
     - Edition 1795 (Buda: Universitatis)
     - Edition 1802 (Coimbra: Academicis)
     - Edition 1830 (Pernambuco/Recife: Nationalibus)

Uebereinstimmung des Rieggerischen und Martinischen Lehrbuchs vom Canonischen Rechte, (Regensburg: Montag, 1780): Digital Version

Nachricht von einigen Schul- und Studienanstalten in den österreichischen Erblanden, (Vienna: Kurzböck, 1791): Digital Version
     - Edition 1792 (Prague: Diesbach): Digital Version

Manuscript Sources

Manuscripts:

Manuscripts of Martini can be found in:

1. Unpublished manuscripts of Martini, see: Cassi, Aldo Andrea: Il "bravo funzionario" absburgico tra Absolutismus e Aufklärung: il pensiero e l'opera di Karl Anton von Martini (1726 - 1800) (Milan: Giuffrè, 1999), p. 35:
     - "Praelectiones de jure civili" (Vienna, 1769), [Austrian National Library: Cod. Ser. n. 12610]: Digital Version
     - "Praelectiones de jure publico universali" (Vienna, 1769), [Austrian National Library: Cod. Ser. n. 12609]: Digital Version
     - "Praelectiones de jure ecclesiastico" (Vienna, 1770), [Austrian National Library: Cod. Ser. n. 12611]: Digital Version
     - "Praelectiones de jure criminali, de jure feudali et gentium" (Vienna, 1772), [Austrian National Library: Cod. Ser. n. 12608]: Digital Version

2. Some of the 14 manuscripts kept in the Austrian State Archives and attributed to Johann Christoph Freiherr von Bartenstein may not have been written by Bartenstein, but by Martini, who, in addition to Bartenstein, gaves lectures to Archduke Joseph and his siblings. The following manuscript by Bartenstein may have been written by Martini (because of the broad discussions of natural law contained therein):
     - "Bruchstück eines Werkes über das deutsche und österreichische Kirchenrecht" (Austrian State Archives: Cod. W 77): Digital Version

3. Almost all of Martini’s works composed in Latin were later translated into German. That applies to the already mentioned “Praelectiones”. This manuscripts in Latin kept at the Austrian National Library correspond to the manuscripts in German in the Austrian State Archives possess this manuscripts written in German by Martini:
     - "Kirchenrecht" (Austrian State Archives: Cod. W 751) [corresponding to "Praelectiones de jure ecclesiastico"]
     - "Natur- und Völkerrecht" (Austrian State Archives: Cod. W 752) [corresponding to "Praelectiones de jure gentium"]
     - "Deutsches Lehenrecht" (Austrian State Archives: Cod. W 753) [corresponding to “Praelectiones de jure publico universali” and "Praelectiones de jure civili"]
     - "Deutsches Staatsrecht" (Austrian State Archives: Cod. W 754) [corresponding to “Praelectiones de jure publico universali” and "Praelectiones de jure civili"]
     - "Von den Vorzügen vernünftiger Fürsten. Auszug aus einer Rechtsgeschichte" (Austrian State Archives: Cod. W 964) [the German version of the "Ordo historiae juris civils"]


For more documents of Martini in the Archives see:

Cassi, Aldo Andrea: Il "bravo funzionario" absburgico tra Absolutismus e Aufklärung : il pensiero e l'opera di Karl Anton von Martini (1726 - 1800), (Milan: Giuffrè, 1999) pp. 41–44.

Diploms concerning Martini and his biography found in the Austrian State Archives:
     - For the "Wappenbesserung": Digital Version
     - For the membership in the Bohemian Diet (Knights’ curia): Digital Version
     - For the ennoblement to the baronage: Digital Version
     - For the appointment to Vice President of the "Oberste Justizstelle": Digital Version
     - For correspondence with Martini: Digital Version
     - For the appointment to Second President of the "Oberste Justizstelle": Digital Version
     - For a lecture by Martini about the hearing of the criminal trial against the state criminals: Digital Version
     - For a project of Martini and a draft of an edict to prohibit the secret societies: Digital Version

Direct Personal Connections:

1741, Paul Joseph Ritter von Riegger, Innsbruck [Martini attended lectures in canon law by Riegger; later faculty colleague at University of Innsbruck and lifelong friend]
1741, Peter Anton Inama, Innsbruck [Martini attended lectures in institutions and criminal law by Inama]
1741, Johann Georg Muschgay, Innsbruck [Martini attended lectures of the doctrine of codex and cameral process by Muschgay]
1741, Karl Puchler, Innsbruck [Martini attended lectures of the Digest and the feudal law by Puchler]
Joseph Freiherr von Sperges, Innsbruck [lifelong friend of Martini; studied philosophy and law at the University of Innsbruck from 1740 to 1747]
Franz von Zeiller, Vienna [student of Martini; tutor of Martini’s sons; successor of Martini on the professorship of natural law and institutions of roman law at the University of Vienna; involved in the codification of Austrian civil law]
Josef von Sonnenfels, Vienna [student of Martini]
Mathias Wilhelm von Haan, Vienna [student of Martini; involved in the codification of Austrian civil law]
Josef Valentin Eybel, Vienna [student of Martini; successor of Paul Joseph Riegger on the professorship of canon law]
Josef Anton Stephan Ritter von Riegger, Vienna [student of Martini; son of Paul Joseph Riegger; Prof. jur. in Freiburg and Prague, “Regierungsrat“ in Lower Austrian and successor to Martini as “Hofrat”]
Johann Bernhard Horten, Vienna [student of Martini; later “Regierungsrat”; member of the “Kompilationskommission”; Councillor of Appeal (“Appellationsrat”); involved in the codification of Austrian civil law]
Joseph Hyacinth von Froidevo, Vienna [student of Martini; later involved in the codification of Austrian civil law]
Franz Georg von Kees, Vienna [student of Martini; later involved in the codification of Austrian civil law]
Anton Luby, Vienna [student of Martini; professor of moral theology in Graz; published his work “Theologia moralis in systema redacta I-III” which strongly depended on Martini’s “Positiones de lege naturali”]
Johann Baptist Albertini, Vienna [student of Martini; professor of logic, metaphysics and moral philosophy in Innsbruck; member of the Court Commission on Education (“Studienhofkommission”)]
Johann Baptist Alxinger, Vienna [student of Martini; friend and employee of Friedrich von Nicolai]
Aloys Blumauer, Vienna [student of Martini; Martini’s doctrine of natural law was reflected in his tragedy “Erwine von Steinheim”]
Constantin Franz Florian Anton von Cautz, Vienna [student of Martini]
Franz Martin Pelzel, Vienna [student of Martini]
Mikkel Munthe Jensen, Last Update:  21.07.2022